Gästinlägg: Eurobarometer 449 – könsbaserat våld
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Det här jästpaket kom in som ett mejl från Fredrik Johanssn precis innan jul. Tyvärr tappades det bort i julstöket. Redaktionen ber så mycket om ursäkt. Men som det brukar heta, bättre sent en aldrig. Vi publicerar mejlet ganska rakt av utan redigering bortsett från att länkar snyggats till. (Och givetvis finns intresse för uppföljande inlägg om saken.)

Hej,

Jag fick upp ögonen för Eurobarometer 449 efter att ha läst en artikel i metro.

Några dagar senare skickade jag ett mejl med frågor till ansvariga bakom rapporten, och idag fick jag ett svar.

Det hade varit intressant att få lite input från er och era läsare på genusdebatten, så ni får gärna publicera detta i ett inlägg. Kanske återkommer jag med ett senare inlägg, om intresse finns, till hur jag resonerar kring svaret, och även om några andra saker jag reagerade på när jag läste rapporten. Just nu har jag tyvärr inte så mycket tid för det, utan väljer att kort och gott publicera mitt mejl, och deras svar för diskussion.

För den som vill läsa själv, så finns rapporten tillsammans med sammanställning av svar för 28 separata länderna här.

Detta är mejlet som jag skickade 2016-12-02:

Hi,

I have a few questions concerning Special Eurobarometer 449 – ‘Gender-based violence’. I would appreciate very much if you would take the time to help me straighten them out.

It was reported in Swedish media that ”27 percent of all europeans think rape might be okay”. The source given in the article is the Special Eurobarometer 449 report published in November 2016. As it seemed ridiculous to claim that over 1 in 4 persons would think rape is okay in certain situations, I went on the read the report myself to see if this was really the conclusion of the report. I found a few things in the report notable that I hope you can help clarify.

The numbers in the Swedish article are obviously based on the response to question QB10 in the questionnaire. The first thing I noted was that the question is about ”sexual intercourse without consent” which may or may not be synonymous with ”rape” (the phrase used in the article). My guess is that it might be in some countries but not in others.

Question 1: In your opinion, is the statment ”27 percent of Europeans think rape is justified or justifiable in certain contexts.” in line with the conclusions of the report?

The second thing I noted was how the question was formulated. On page 62 in the report it is stated that ”Respondents were asked whether having sexual intercourse without consent was justified in in [sic!] nine different circumstances”. And thereafter claimed that ”At least one in ten respondents think intercourse without consent is justified if the person is drunk or using drugs”. But in my opinion this is not what is actually asked. The exact formulation of QB10 is:

”Some people belive that having sexual intercourse without consent may be justified in certain situations. Do you think this applies to the following circumstances?”

I think this is different from asking ”Do you think that having sexual intercourse without consent is justified in the following circumstances?”.

Formulated as in QB10, I think that some people may have interpreted that question as ”Do you think that these (some) people (that believes it may be justified) are justifying it under the following circumstances?” (i.e. the respondent may have thought that you were asking, not whether they themselves would justify it, but in what situations they think others may have justified it. As it is clearly claimed in the question that others DO justify it.)

To me it seems more plausible that such a high percentage that responded yes to these questions may have interpreted them in that, not intended, way rather than them themselves thinking it is justifiable in those situations. Especially considering that several other questions in the questionnaire are asking the respondent to take an educated guess about how things are rather than asking about their own opinions and/or experiences.

It’s also interesting to note that in QB8.3, when explicitly asking what the respondent thinks about forcing a partner to have sex, 96 percent say it is wrong, and only 1 percent say it is not. While when asking about intercourse without consent the way it is asked in QB10, most circumstances has at least 7 percent answering that yes, it is justified.

Question 2: In your oppinion, is it possible that some respondents may have interpreted QB10 as asking in what situations they think other people may justify sexual intercourse without consent?

The follow up question to this is concerning the translation of QB10 into a multitude of languages. In the Swedish factsheet QB10 is translated as:

”Somliga tycker att det kan vara rättfärdigat att ha sexuellt umgänge utan samtycke i vissa situationer. Anser du att detta gäller för följande omständigheter?”

It seems to me that in the swedish translation it’s harder (but still possible) to misinterpret the question in the way described above. And, as seen in the report, swedes are some of the least likely to have responded ”may be justified” in most of the situations. It would be interesting to know from someone speaking romanian (as they are stated in the report to be most likely to respond ”may be justified”) what they think about their translation of QB10 concerning this matter.

Question 3: Do you think the translation of QB10 into various languages may have affected how the question was interpreted by respondents in different countries?

Thank you for taking your time to read and respond to this mail!

Best regards,

Fredrik Johansson, Software developer & Concerned EU citizen.

Här är svaret som jag fick 2016-12-23:

Dear Mr Johansson,

Thank you for your interest in Eurobarometer surveys.

We are sorry for this late reply.

We take note of your remarks on the Special Eurobarometer 449 ”Gender-based violence”.

Please see the statement prepared by Directorate-General Justice of the European Commission on this matter:

”Many thanks for your interest in this survey and for writing to express your concerns. The aim in designing this Eurobarometer was to provide EU and national policymakers with information on attitudes towards gender-based violence, in order to better respond to the problem, both as regards prevention and tackling the issues of under-reporting and access to justice and support for victims.

We understand that the findings of the survey are shocking, including the responses to the question regarding sexual intercourse without consent. However, QB9 also uncovered shocking victim-blaming attitudes among an almost equally sizable segment of the EU population, and an EU-wide survey on women’s experiences of violence carried out by the European Fundamental Rights Agency in 2013 found that 5% of women have been raped in their lifetimes, with only 30-40% of women who have experienced sexual violence reporting it to the police or contacting support or legal services, in many cases due to shame or a belief that they are to blame. This supports the finding that victim-blaming attitudes still persist in society, both among men and women. Furthermore, the data from the question on sexual intercourse without consent is consistent with similar research undertaken at the national level in Member States. For example, a survey in Estonia shows that 47% of the general population completely or partly agreed with the statement that ”Women cause their victimisation or rape by their clothing” and in another survey 39% of young people in Estonia partly or completely agreed that a victim of rape who has consumed alcohol before it occurred is partly responsible for what happened. In Sweden, 23% of men and 18% of women agree that ”The woman herself is responsible for being raped if she is under the influence of alcohol/drugs.” The same Swedish survey also showed high percentages of agreement (in some cases over 25%) with a number of statements that included different circumstances or behaviours justifying rape: “she does not physically resist or scream” (25% men; 18% women), “she voluntarily follows a man home, for example after a party/restaurant” (26% men; 25% women), “she has flirted and petted with the man before the rape” (26% men; 22% women) or “she dresses and acts provocatively” (26% men; 19% women). These examples are drawn from a mapping exercise carried out in preparation for developing this Eurobarometer and detailed in the following report, published by the Commission a year ago: Attitudes Towards Violence Against Women in the EU (see p 72 and further).

In addition, the question on sexual intercourse without consent sought to minimise social desirability bias, which refers to the fact that people will often report inaccurately on sensitive topics in order to present themselves in the best possible light, by referring to the fact that some people believe the statement. The questionnaire was subjected to testing before roll-out to the full sample. No issues of understanding were raised during this process – this means that during the interviews, respondents didn’t want to clarify with the interviewer or didn’t ask the interviewer about what was exactly meant by the question. It appears that the question was understood the way it was intended and that ‘the persons interviewed find sexual consent justified in situation x, y, z, or in none of these’. In fact a majority of people selected ‘none of these’, which would be strange if respondents thought we were asking why others may believe that sexual intercourse without consent could be justified.”

Best regards,

COMM EUROBAROMETER

Som sagt, hade varit intressant att höra några andra personers tankar kring detta.

I övrigt vill jag tacka för en trevlig blogg som jag följt till och från under de senaste åren, samt passa på att önska alla en riktigt god jul och ett gott nytt år!

Med vänlig hälsning,

Fredrik Johansson

 

Kommentarer

Gästinlägg: Eurobarometer 449 – könsbaserat våld — 7 kommentarer

  1. Har inga tankar alls , faktiskt Smile

    Är ingen concerned EU-Citizen,eftersom jag röstade Ja till möjligheten att ignorera ett Europa med 722 delegater som utgör centralmakten fast utan möjlighet att rösta fram Kommissionen. Svaret du fick anger tonläget i denna extremt centraliserade opinionsapparatur. Personligen angår detta mig noll och intet.

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  2. For example, a survey in Estonia shows that 47% of the general population completely or partly agreed with the statement that ”Women cause their victimisation or rape by their clothing” and in another survey 39% of young people in Estonia partly or completely agreed that a victim of rape who has consumed alcohol before it occurred is partly responsible for what happened.

    Så vad exact betyder t.ex. ”partly agree that a victim of rape who has consumed alcohol before it occurred is partly responsible for what happened”?

    Eller för all del ”partly agree that victims of domestic violence are often partly to blame for what happened”?

    Man behöver se lite mer detalj om hur folk svarade.

    Såhär såg frågan ut exakt:

    EE-Survey 2:
    To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement (Completely agree, Partly agree, Don’t know, Partly disagree, Completely disagree):
    – Often victims of domestic violence are partly to blame for what happened
    – Women cause their victimisation or rape by their clothing

    Och svarsfördelningen för andra punkten framgår av bifogad bild. Det finns ingen naturlag som säger att man måste klumpa ihop ”completely agree” och ”partly agree”, men det är ett mycket vanligt knep för att förstärka det förväntade resultatet. Snarare finns två extrempunkter: ”completely agree” (12 %) och ”completely disagree” (23 %), där vi av sammanhanget kan förstå att det enda ”rätta” svaret är ”completely disagree”. 65 % tycker alltså att det inte är så enkelt och endast 12 % (högt iofs) är beredda att helt hålla med.

    På första frågan svarade 42 % ”Partly agree”, vilket baserat på rena fakta inte alls är långsökt, då många studier visar att våldet i majoriteten av fall är ömsesidigt, och att det dessutom är vanligt att kvinnan* inleder våldet. Så som frågan är formulerad, med ”often partly”, så är det rimligen korrekt även att svara ”completely agree”, med ömsesidigt våld i åtanke.

    * Nu är ju frågan könsneutral, så det behöver inte tolkas som att det bara är kvinnliga offer som åsyftas. När det gäller manliga offer för relationsvåld är det ju för övrigt rätt vanligt att man frågar sig vad mannen gjort för att förtjäna misshandeln.

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  3. @Ulf T:
    Ja, och som dessutom påpekas i inlägget så finns det ju en hel del utrymme för skillnader i översättningar.
    ”partly to blame” (jag ogillar i hög grad användningen av ”blame”, det är i sig ett värderande och negativt uttryck, korrekt hade varit att tala om ”partly responsible”) täcker ju i stort sett hela registret utom extremerna 0% och 100% ansvariga. Och att offrena skulle vara 100% oskyldiga köper jag helt enkelt inte. Jag tvivlar t.o.m. att skolflickorna i Hiroshima var 100% oskyldiga (även om avvikelsen var bråkdelar av en ppm)

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  4. @Dolf (a.k.a. Anders Ericsson): Hej.

    ”The media’s the most powerful entity on earth.
    They have the power to make the innocent guilty,
    and to make the guilty innocent, and that’s
    power.

    Because they control the minds of the masses.”
    Malcolm X

    Beroende på vem som tagit fram statistik, och i vilket syfte, kan det lika gärna appliceras här. Associationen ‘invandring från Afrika/MENA = fler och värre våldtäkter’ är inget unikt för Sverige. Då passar det bra med data som säger att det istället beror på attityder som redan finns i valfritt EU-samhälle.

    Varje fråga i en sådan undersökning skulle istället presenterats med ett konkret exempel, där respondenten fått välja bland svarsalternativen utifrån exemplet. Med skickligt formulerad text och demografiska data om respondenterna hade vi kunnat få fram viktiga skillnader och likheter mellan grupper.

    Kamratliga hälsningar,
    Rikard, fd lärare

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  5. @Dolf (a.k.a. Anders Ericsson):

    Jag tvivlar t.o.m. att skolflickorna i Hiroshima var 100% oskyldiga (även om avvikelsen var bråkdelar av en ppm)

    Hmm … 1942 bodde 419 000 invånare i Hiroshima. Utifrån hur det ser ut i Sverige idag, kanske vi kan anta att ca 0,5 % av befolkningen utgörs av flickor i grundskolan, dvs ca 2000 skolflickor i Hiroshima. 1 ppm skulle då betyda att t.ex. en skolflicka bär på två tusendelars skuld, vilket nog låter mycket. Wink

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  6. In fact a majority of people selected ‘none of these’, which would be strange if respondents thought we were asking why others may believe that sexual intercourse without consent could be justified.

    De verkar inte begripa att de svarande är individer, inte ett kollektiv. Om 80% tolkar frågan som de tänkts sig, men 20% tolkar frågan på ett annat sätt, innebär inte att någon kommer klaga över att inte ha förstått – de har ju sin förståelse av frågan; och om majoriteten har den tolkningen som leder till att svara ‘none of these’, så är inte det något motargument mot att andra svaranden kan ha tolkat frågan på det andra sättet.
    För seriösa enkätstudier är det ett svårt problem att undvika sådana tvetydigheter, men inom feministisk våldtäktshysterikultur ägnar man sig istället åt att använda sig av sådana tvetydigheter.

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